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齿突蟾属四个物种皮肤的组织学观察
Histological Observation of Skin in Four Species in the Genus Scutiger
曹燕1, 2,谢锋1*,江建平1
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作者单位:(1. 中国科学院成都生物研究所,成都610041;2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049)
中文关键字:齿突蟾属; 皮肤; 皮肤腺; 钙化层; 色素层; 生态适应
英文关键字:Scutiger; skin; cutaneous gland; lamina calcarea; pigment layer; ecological adaptation
中文摘要:观察了齿突蟾属Scutiger2亚属、4物种[西藏齿突蟾S. (Scutiger) boulengeri、刺胸猫眼蟾S. (Aelurophryne) mammatus、木里猫眼蟾S. (A.) muliensis和胸腺猫眼蟾S. (A.) glandulatus]的体背、体腹皮肤及其腺体的组织形态学结构。结果表明:4个物种不同部位的皮肤虽厚薄不一,但基本结构相同,由表皮和真皮组成。体背细胞层数比体腹少、表皮比体腹薄,但整体来说体背皮肤比体腹厚。皮肤毛细血管分布于表皮与真皮的相接处,并与表皮平行排列成一排,猫眼蟾亚属中皮肤毛细血管众多且凸入表皮,皮肤在呼吸中占有重要地位。真皮分为疏松层和致密层,疏松层中有大量腺体分布,包括粘液腺和颗粒腺两种。粘液腺周身分布,颗粒腺主要分布在体背部。色素细胞位于真皮浅层,呈不规则分支状或块状,体背色素层发达,体腹色素层也较发达,在齿突蟾属物种对低温、高海拔、强紫外辐射环境的生态适应中起着重要作用。在齿突蟾属4个物种的体背、体腹真皮疏松层里发现一种特殊物质,HE染色呈蓝色条带,看不出细胞结构,位于色素层的下方,初步认为是钙化层(lamina calcarea),是继三角枯叶蛙Megophrys nasuta中相似结构报道后,在角蟾科的又一类群中发现这一结构。
英文摘要:We used the microscope to observe the dorsal and ventral skin of Scutiger (Scutiger) boulengeri, S. (Aelurophryne) mammatus, S. (A.) muliensis, and S. (A.) glandulatus in the genus Scutiger. The skins of the four species at different positions on the body, which including the epidermis and dermis, were different in thickness but similar in structure. Epidermis of the dorsal skin was thinner than that of the ventral skin, and had less cell layers, but overall, the dorsal skin was thicker than the ventral skin. Capillaries were distributed in the junction between the epidermis and dermis, parallel to the epidermis. Species of subgenus Aelurophryne had more capillaries, their skin played an important role in respiration. Dermis was made up of stratum spongiosum and stratum compactum. The stratum spongiosum was loaded with glands, which included two types: the mucus gland and granular gland. Mucus glands were widely distributed in different parts of the skin, and the granular glands were mostly distributed in the dorsal skin. The pigment layer was found on the top of dermis and was irregular in shape. The pigment layer was well-developed both in the dorsal and ventral skin, only slightly thinner in ventral skin. As Scutiger lived in the environment with low temperature, high altitude and strong ultraviolet radiation, the pigment layer played an important role in ecological adaptation. A special substance, the lamina calcare, had been discovered in both the dorsal and ventral corium tectorium in the four species. It showed as blue bands when HE staining was employed. There were no cell structures in the lamina calcarea which lay under the pigment layers.
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