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河南太行山自然保护区猕猴夜宿地选择研究
Sleeping Site Selection by Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) in Taihangshan National Nature Reserve, Henan Province
郭相保1,王振龙1,田军东1,路纪琪1*,刘金栋2
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作者单位:(1. 郑州大学生物工程系,河南郑州450001;2. 国有济源市愚公林场,河南济源454693)
中文关键字:太行山猕猴;夜宿地;夜宿行为;太行山
英文关键字:rhesus macaques; sleeping sites; roosting behavior; Mt. Taihangshan
中文摘要:200937月,在太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区所辖的王屋山地区(112°12′~112°22′E35°05′~35°15′N),通过野外跟踪调查及样方调查法,研究了太行山猕猴Macaca mulatta tcheliensis一个种群的夜宿地选择。共发现猕猴的夜宿地18个,同时设置18个对照样地。在夜宿地和对照样地中,分别测定了15种生境因子,并进行了主成分分析。结果表明,太行山猕猴的夜宿地多选择在山坡(15/18)和山脊(3/18)(χ2=8.00df=1P=0.005),不选择沟地;位于山坡上的夜宿地均处于上坡位(11/18)和中坡位(7/18),而回避下坡位。通过对夜宿地和对照样地的生境因子的t检验发现,太行山猕猴偏好选择有一定坡度、乔木密度较大和乔木层盖度较高,隐蔽度较高的地方作为夜宿地,而对夜宿地中的灌木层盖度和草本层盖度则未表现出选择倾向(P>0.05),其夜栖树主要为生境内胸径超过20 cm的阔叶树,栖处高度通常在10 m左右。对夜宿地生境特征的主成分分析显示:前5个主成分的特征值均大于1,其累积贡献率达到77.78%,可以较好地反映猕猴的夜宿地特征,影响太行山猕猴夜宿地选择的主要因素依次为乔木密度、隐蔽度、坡度和气候因素。
英文摘要:By using tracking observation and sampling, sleeping site selection ofTaihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) was determined in the Wangwushan area (112°12′~112°22′ E, 35°05′~35°15′N) within Taihangshan National Nature Reserve, Jiyuan, Henan province, China. Eighteen sleeping sites were found and 18 control sites were recorded. Fifteen ecological factors were measured in the sleeping sites and control sites. SPSS for Windows and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed in data analysis. The results showed that: most of the sleeping sites were seated on a hillside (15/18), the others were located in a ridge (3/18), (χ2 =8.00df =1P=0.005), and all hillside sleeping sites occupied the up position (11/18) and middle position (7/18), while none were in the down position. Macaques preferred sleeping sites with a slope degree of 37.89º±1.49º (t= 4.877, P<0.001), tree density of 6.33±0.69 (ind./100 m2) (t= 4.468, P<0.001), canopy cover of 70.56%±1.85% (t=3.293, P=0.004), and concealment of 38.61 m± 4.98 m(t=-2.887, P=0.010). Macaques preferred roosts that were over 20 cm in diameter, and the roosting places were usually 10 m in height, but there was no significant preference on shrub and herb coverage within sleeping sites. Sleeping site selection of Taihangshan macaques, based on PCA results, was significantly associated with tree density, concealment, slope degree, and weather.
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