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湖南常德桃花源机场鸟类的时空分布与鸟击防范
Avian Spatial and Temporal Distribution and Bird Strike Preventive Measures at Changde Taohuayuan Airport, Hunan Province
李益得1,杨道德1*,张志强1,杜伟军2,毛俊2,江华2
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作者单位:(1. 中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所,长沙 410004;2. 湖南常德桃花源机场安全保障部,湖南常德 415034)
中文关键字:鸟类群落;物种多样性;时空分布;鸟击防范;常德桃花源机场
英文关键字:avian community; species diversity; spatial and temporal distribution; bird strike avoidance; Changde Taohuayuan Airport.
中文摘要:桃花源机场位于湖南省常德市鼎城区斗姆湖镇,距市区12.2 km。机场自19986月复航以来,鸟击事故时有发生,严重地影响到机场的飞行安全。为指导机场开展有针对性的鸟击防范工作,20085~20094月,作者对桃花源机场净空区的鸟类群落组成和不同生境的鸟类物种多样性进行了实地调查,共记录到91种鸟类,隶属1328科。其中留鸟39种,夏候鸟25种,冬候鸟25种,旅鸟2种。在不同季节中,机场净空区鸟类的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀性指数在春季均为最高,秋季均为最低。在净空区灌草丛、树林、农田、村落和水域5种鸟类生境类型中,以灌草丛生境鸟类的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数最高,村落生境鸟类的Pielou均匀性指数最高,农田生境鸟类的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀性指数均为最低。鸟类种群密度在灌草丛与农田、灌草丛与村落、灌草丛与水域、树林与农田、树林与村落、树林与水域、农田与村落、村落与水域生境之间的差异显著(P<0.05);灌草丛与树林生境、农田与水域生境间的差异不显著(P>0.05)。鸟类种群密度在不同季节间的差异不显著(P>0.05)。与鸟击的发生较为密切的鸟类为小云雀Alauda gulgula、牛背鹭Bubulcus ibis、金腰燕Hirundo daurica等鸟类。据此对桃花源机场的鸟击防范提出了相关建议。
英文摘要:Taohuayuan Airport is located in Doumuhu town, Dingcheng district, Changde municipality of Hunan Province, about 12.2 km away from the urban area.Inorder to prevent bird strike, a survey of avian species diversity was conducted at Taohuayuan Airport from May 2008 to April 2009. There were 91 bird species observed, belonging to 28 families and 13 orders. Among them, there were 39, 25, 25, and 2 bird species belonging to the resident birds, the summer breeders, the winter migrant birds, and the passage migrant birds, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou’s evenness index of the avian community in spring were the highest while the lowest occurred in autumn. The Shannon-Wiener index of birds in the shrub-grassland was the highest and Pielou's evenness index of birds in the village habitat was the highest; both the indices of birds in the farmland were the lowest. The density of bird population did not show significant difference among different seasons, and between the shrub-grassland and the forest habitat, the farmland and the water-body habitat (P>0.05), whereas there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among other habitats. The survey showed that these birds, Oriental skylark (Alauda gulgula), cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), and red-rumped swallow (Hirundo daurica), had more relation to the bird strikes at the airport. Some suggestions for preventing bird strike were put forward at Changde Taohuayuan Airport in this paper.
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