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贵阳阿哈湖国家湿地公园优势鸟类共存机制
Coexistence Mechanism of Dominant Birds in the Guiyang Ahahu National Wetland Park
陈斯侃1, 晏玉莹2*, 曾亚军2
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180385
作者单位:1. 贵州省林业调查规划院, 贵阳 550000;
2. 贵州省林业科学研究院, 贵阳 550000
中文关键字:生态位重叠与分离;优势鸟类;鸟类行为;生境类型;城市湿地
英文关键字:niche overlap and separation; dominant birds; bird behavior; habitat type; city wetland
中文摘要:2016年9月—2017年2月、2018年4—8月对贵阳阿哈湖国家湿地公园进行实地调查,从生态位分析了园内黄臀鹎Pycnonotus xanthorrhous、麻雀Passer montanus和白颊噪鹛Garrulax sannio 3种优势鸟类的共存机制。结果表明:3种鸟类的时间生态位宽度整体相近,分别为0.862 1、0.793 7和0.866 7,从季节来看,黄臀鹎较平稳,麻雀夏季最宽、冬季最窄,白颊噪鹛夏季最窄、秋季最宽。空间生态位宽度为:黄臀鹎(0.604 9)>白颊噪鹛(0.387 6)>麻雀(0.215 8),它们在人工生境中的生态位宽度均最大;3种鸟类的时空生态位重叠值普遍较高,在时间上,白颊噪鹛和麻雀重叠度最高,达到了0.985 3,在空间上,黄臀鹎和麻雀重叠度最高(0.873 2),其次为黄臀鹎和白颊噪鹛(0.831 6),最低的为麻雀和白颊噪鹛(0.481 1)。3种鸟类均为城市适应种,在不同维度的生态位上通过行为空间、食性、巢址选择、生境垂直和水平分布分离等多种方式形成系统的生态位分离,增强群落的稳定性以达到共存目的。
英文摘要:Based on the field investigation in the Guiyang Ahahu National Wetland Park from September 2016 to February 2017 and from April to August 2018, the coexistence mechanism of 3 dominant birds (Pycnonotus xanthorrhous, Passer montanus and Garrulax sannio) was studied. The results showed that the 3 dominant birds had similar overall niche breadth, which were 0.862 1, 0.793 7 and 0.866 7, respectively. However, the niche breadth of Pycnonotus xanthorrhous was stable, while the niche breadth of Passer montanus was the widest in summer and the narrowest in winter, and the niche breadth of G. sannio was the narrowest in summer and the widest in autumn. The spatial overall niche breadth was Pycnonotus xanthorrhous (0.604 9) > G. sannio (0.387 6) > Passer montanus (0.215 8), and the 3 dominant birds reached the maximum niche breadth in the artificial habitat. The spatiotemporal niche overlap of the 3 birds was generally high. In terms of time, the highest degree of overlap was found between G. sannio and Passer montanus (0.985 3). In terms of spatial, the highest degree of overlap was found between Pycnonotus xanthorrhous and Passer montanus (0.873 2), followed by Pycnonotus xanthorrhous and G. sannio (0.831 6), and the lowest was between Passer montanus and G. sannio (0.481 1). The 3 dominant birds were urban adaptive species, but they were different on many ways, such as behavior space, diet, nest-site selection, habitat vertical and horizontal distribution. By doing these, the 3 dominant birds reached niche separation, and then stabled coexistence within communities.
2019,38(3): 340-348 收稿日期:2018-12-11
分类号:Q959.7;Q111.2+4
基金项目:贵州省林业厅青年基金项目:贵州省林业厅青年科技人才培养对象专项资金项目(黔林科合J字〔2016〕03号);贵州黎平石漠化生态系统定位观测研究站建设项目(2016-LYPT-DW-088);黔科合院士站〔2014〕4006;贵州省林业厅青年科技人才培养对象专项资金项目(黔林科合J〔2017〕04号)
作者简介:陈斯侃(1988-),男,硕士,工程师,研究方向:野生动物资源调查和林业调查规划,E-mail:314732524@qq.com
*通信作者:晏玉莹,E-mail:yanyuying1624@126.com
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