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人工饲养南黄颊长臂猿行为活动节律的季节性特征
Seasonal Characteristics of Behavior and Activity Rhythm in Artificially Reared Nomascus gabriellae
张藐, 孙杨, 傅兆水*, 孙伟东
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180383
作者单位:南京市红山森林动物园, 南京 210028
中文关键字:南黄颊长臂猿;时间分配;活动节律;季节;差异性
英文关键字:Nomascus gabriellae; time budget; activity rhythm; season; difference
中文摘要:2017年10月—2018年9月,采用瞬时扫描法和目标取样法对南京市红山森林动物园高淳湿地研究中心的南黄颊长臂猿Nomascus gabriellae季节性活动节律进行观察研究,共计扫描4 369次,观察时间累计1 092 h,得到行为数据26 208个,将其行为划分为取食、休息、运动、社会、交配和其他6种。结果表明,休息和运动是南黄颊长臂猿各季节的主要行为类型,其次为取食和社会行为。各行为在不同季节具有明显的节律性,休息一般出现在晨昏和正午;而运动一般出现在上午和下午;取食在各季节存在2个明显高峰,受饲养员喂食时间和频次的影响较大,表现为休息-运动-取食-休息-运动-取食-休息的行为模式。Kruskal-Wallis H分析结果显示,南黄颊长臂猿在不同季节和相同季节不同时段的行为差异有统计学意义:秋、冬季的取食行为明显高于春、夏季,而休息和运动相反。温度、日照、天气、游客量、饲养员日常操作等均影响南黄颊长臂猿的活动节律。
英文摘要:From October 2017 to September 2018, the seasonal activity rhythm of artificially reared southern yellow-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) was studied by using instantaneous scanning and target sampling method in the Gaochun Wetland Research Center of Nanjing Hongshan Forestry Zoo. A total of 26 208 behavioral data were obtained by 4 369 scanning times in 1 092 h of observation time. The results showed that the behaviors of N. gabriellae were divided into feeding, resting, moving, society, mating and others. Resting and moving were the main behavior types of N. gabriellae all year round, followed by feeding and social behaviors. Each behavior had an obvious rhythm in different seasons. Resting behavior appeared at dawn and noon, while moving appeared in the morning and afternoon. There were 2 peaks of feeding, influenced by the time and frequency of feeding. The basic activity rhythm showed a rule of resting-moving-feeding-resting-moving-feeding-resting. The result of Kruskal-Wallis H analysis showed that the behaviors of N. gabriellae had significant differences in different seasons and different time intervals of the same season. The time of feeding in autumn and winter was significantly more than that in spring and summer, while resting and moving showed the opposite. In conclusion, the activity rhythm of N. gabriellae is affected by temperature, sunshine, weather, tourist amount, and the daily operation of the breeder, and so on.
2019,38(3): 284-292 收稿日期:2018-12-10
分类号:Q959.848;S821.4
基金项目:南京市园林绿化行业科技计划项目(YLKJ201707JH)
作者简介:张藐(1991-),男,硕士研究生,从事野生动物饲养管理工作,E-mail:1147209048@qq.com
*通信作者:傅兆水,E-mail:916400910@qq.com
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