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基于卫星跟踪的洞庭湖越冬小天鹅迁徙路线研究
Study on the Migration Routes of Overwintering Cygnus columbianus in Dongting Lake Based on Satellite Tracking
黄田1,2, 徐正刚2,3, 彭姣4, 赵运林3*
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作者单位:1. 湖南农业大学生物科学技术学院, 长沙 410128;
2. 湖南城市学院信息与电子工程学院, 湖南益阳 413002;
3. 中南林业科技大学生命科学与技术学院, 长沙 410004;
4. 湖南省动物物联网工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410205
中文关键字:小天鹅;迁徙路线;停歇地;卫星跟踪
英文关键字:Cygnus columbianus; migration route; stopover; satellite tracking
中文摘要:掌握洞庭湖越冬小天鹅Cygnus columbianus的迁徙行为和规律,明确迁徙路线和停歇地,是小天鹅栖息地恢复研究及保护的基础。2014—2017年,在湖南东洞庭湖国家级自然保护区对18只小天鹅进行卫星跟踪,收集了38 882条定位数据。本研究确定了小天鹅西线、中线和东线3条迁徙路线,其中,新发现的西线沿我国湖北、河南、山西、陕西、内蒙古,以及蒙古国、哈萨克斯坦,抵达俄罗斯亚马尔-涅涅茨自治区北部靠近喀拉海的北极苔原。西线春季迁徙距离为6 715 km,平均迁徙速度为21.52 km·h-1,秋季迁徙距离为7 467 km,平均迁徙速度为32.75 km·h-1。中线春季迁徙距离为2 083 km,平均迁徙速度为28.93 km·h-1。东线春季迁徙距离为5 965~6 351 km,平均迁徙速度为(28.71±0.95)km·h-1,秋季迁徙距离为5 101~5 331 km,平均迁徙速度为(29.15±3.65)km·h-1。小天鹅春季迁徙进程慢于秋季,迁徙途中的最大飞行速度达133.3 km·h-1。内蒙古自治区的黄河湿地和大兴安岭两侧河谷湿地是迁徙途中的重要中转站,小天鹅在此停歇15 d以上。本研究有助于了解小天鹅对栖息环境的偏好及迁徙路线选择策略,为禽流感等疾病传播和防控提供科学依据。
英文摘要:Conservation of Cygnus columbianus and restoration of their habitats depend on the knowledge of migration routes, stopover sites, and overwintering patterns. During 2014 to 2017, satellite tracking was carried out on 18 C. columbianus individuals in the Dongting Lake and 38 882 positioning data points were collected. The central and eastern migration routes of C. columbianus were confirmed and a newly western route was discovered in this study. The new route passes through Hubei, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia in China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan to reach the arctic tundra near the Kara Sea in the north of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Siberia, Russia. On the western route, the birds traveled 6 715 km at 21.52 km·h-1 during spring migration and 7 467 km at 32.75 km·h-1 during autumn migration. On the central route, they traveled 2 083 km at an average speed of 28.93 km·h-1 during spring migration. On the eastern route, they traveled 5 965~6 351 km at an average speed of (28.71 ±0.95) km·h-1 during spring migration and 5 101~5 331 km at an average speed of (29.15±3.65) km·h-1 during autumn migration. The speed of migration during spring is slower than that during autumn, and the maximum speed is 133.3 km·h-1. The Yellow River wetland and the river valley wetlands on both sides of the Greater Khingan Mountains in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China are important transit stations during migration, and the birds rest there for more than 15 days. This study increases the knowledge of habitat perference and migration routes of C. columbianus, and provides useful data for understanding the transmission of diseases such as avian flu.
2018,37(4): 361-372 收稿日期:2018-03-23
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180003
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.13
基金项目:湖南省动物物联网工程技术研究中心建设项目(2017TP2014)
作者简介:黄田(1982-),男,博士,讲师,生态学专业,E-mail:65061902@qq.com
*通讯作者:赵运林,E-mail:zyl8291290@163.com
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