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普雄原鲵初步调查
Preliminary Investigation of Pseudohynobius puxiongensis in Sichuan Province
艾永斌1, 袁思棋2, 陈云梅1, 徐凉燕1, 彭卫华1, 罗剑1, 张超华2, 罗玮2, 曾晓茂2*
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作者单位:1. 四川申果庄省级大熊猫自然保护区管理处, 四川越西 616650;
2. 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
中文关键字:普雄原鲵;栖息地;种群数量;繁殖;发育
英文关键字:Pseudohynobius puxiongensis; habitat; population size; reproduction; development
中文摘要:普雄原鲵Pseudohynobius puxiongensis是依据1965年获得的单号标本描述订立的新种,目前仅见于我国大凉山极狭窄区域,是该高寒地区唯一的五趾小鲵科动物。调查小组根据相似分布区及访问线索,于2007—2014年间相继发现普雄原鲵个体(包括成体、幼体和卵袋)和3处栖息地。实地调查面积超过60 km2,其中潜在分布区约400 000 m2,发现普雄原鲵实际生存面积仅3425 m2。3处栖息地海拔2770~3000 m,地处彝族聚集区和牧区草场,主要生境是高山草甸和灌丛、高原山涧、小浸沟及其水坑、小水潭。栖息地分布有茂密的箭竹林、杜鹃丛和草丛等,较好地提供了荫蔽的环境。本次调查发现普雄原鲵成体20尾,幼体157尾,卵袋16对;3处栖息地的种群数量和种群密度相差较大。各栖息地受到不同程度的人为干扰和牲畜干扰。较之其他同类动物,普雄原鲵野外种群数量极其稀少。
英文摘要:Pseudohynobius puxiongensis, which was described as new species based on a single specimen collected in 1965, is the relic species distributed in narrow region of Taliang Mountains (Hengduan Mountains), and this species is the only five-toed hynobiid salamander in the alpine regions. From 2007 to 2014, the adult, juvenile, larva, and egg sacs of P. puxiongensis were discovered, and three habitats were detected with the help of local people. Although the field investigation area was 60 km2 and the latent distribution area was over 400 000 m2, the actual living area of salamander was only 3425 m2. The three habitats were 2770-3000 m asl. and located in the Yi community and pastoral areas. The habitats were consisted of highland brooks, puddles and mountain streams. Such small streams and puddles were typically mixed alpine meadows and thickets. A necessary condition for P. puxiongensis was covered with dense bush-woods, bamboo and azalea to prevent direct sunlight, since these provided a moderate level of humidity. In 2014, 20 adults, 157 larvae and 16 pairs of egg sacs were found in these areas. Population size and density of salamander were significantly varied among the three habitats. These habitats were subjected to different levels of human disturbance and livestock interference. By contrasting with the hynobiids, the wild population size of P. puxiongensis was exceedingly rare.
2015,34(4): 565-569 收稿日期:2014-11-20
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.2015.04.014
分类号:Q959.5
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(NSFC31272282)
作者简介:艾永斌(1978—),男,林业工程师,研究方向:野生动物与自然保护区管理,E-mail:352278596@qq.com
*通讯作者:曾晓茂,E-mail:zengxm@cib.ac.cn
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