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1999~2013年我国野生丹顶鹤死伤数量及其对野生种群的影响
Red-crowned Cranes Injured or Killed in China in 1999~2013 and its Impact on the Wild Population
周大庆1*,徐网谷1,刘影2,蒋明康1
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作者单位:(1. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所,南京210042;2. 环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心,北京100035)
中文关键字:中毒;偷猎;救治;栖息地;就地保护
英文关键字:poisoning; poaching; rescue; habitat; in-situ conservation
中文摘要:丹顶鹤是国家一级保护动物,已被IUCN列为濒危物种。近年来,我国野生丹顶鹤种群数量不断下降,就地保护形势极为严峻。本研究搜集和整理了1999~2013年我国与直接人为干扰相关的野生丹顶鹤死伤事件,并分析了其对丹顶鹤野生种群的影响。结果表明:近15年,因直接人为干扰导致死亡和受伤的丹顶鹤总数为174只,平均11.6/年;其中,死亡丹顶鹤67只,受伤丹顶鹤107只。也就是说,每年约2.1%的野生丹顶鹤种群因直接人为干扰而丧失。1999~2013年,丹顶鹤死亡数量随时间推移呈不断下降的趋势,但受伤丹顶鹤数量并未减少;丹顶鹤因中毒导致的伤亡事件比例随时间推移呈直线下降趋势。1999~2013年,全国有10个省、市、自治区发生了野生丹顶鹤的死伤事件;其中,江苏省、辽宁省和吉林省的死伤丹顶鹤总数最多,分别达到62只、46只和23只;江苏省和辽宁省的死亡丹顶鹤分别占总数的52.2%29.9%。从丹顶鹤死伤原因分析,中毒事件占死伤事件总数的38.5%,受伤原因不明的占48.7%;因中毒而死亡的丹顶鹤有62只,占死亡总数的92.5%;因中毒而受伤的丹顶鹤有51只,占受伤总数的47.7%。中毒是近15年我国野生丹顶鹤死亡或受伤的最主要原因。本研究为了解直接人为干扰对丹顶鹤野生种群的影响提供了最直接的证据,为解释我国丹顶鹤野生种群持续减少提供了新的视角,为进一步加强丹顶鹤保护与管理、促进丹顶鹤野生种群健康稳定发展提供了基础数据。
英文摘要:Red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is one of the first-class national protected animals in China, and has been listed as a “Critically Endangered” species by IUCN. The in-situ conservation of red-crowned cranes faces a tough situation, since the wild population of which was dramatically decreased in recent years in China. We collected and sorted out the casualty events of red-crowned cranes associated with direct human disturbances during 1999~2013 inChina, and then analyzed their impacts on the wild population. We found a total of 174 red-crowned cranes were injured (107 inds.) or killed (67 inds.) in the past 15 years, with an average of 11.6 per year. In other words, about 2.1% of wild red-crowned cranes were lost per year because of direct human disturbances. The number of killed red-crowned cranes decreased over time, but the number of the injured individuals showed a reverse trend. The percentage of poisoning incidents in total casualty events decreased linearly with time. The casualty events of red-crowned cranes happened in the administrative regions of 10 provinces during 1999~2013 inChina, and the top three were Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Jilin, with 62, 46, and 23 were killed and injured, respectively. Regarding the casualty causes, poisoning accounted for 38.5% of total casualty events, and 48.7% were unknown injuries. Moreover, 62 individuals were killed by poisoning, accounted for 92.5% of total deaths; 51 were injured by poisoning, accounted for 47.7% of total injuries. Therefore, poisoning is the most important factor causing the deaths and injuries of red-crowned cranes in recent years. This study confirmed that human disturbances have a negative impact on wild red-crowned cranes. Understanding of this not only reveals a new angle to explain why the wild population of red-crowned cranes keeps decreasing, but also provides some basic information to improve the conservation and management of wild red-crowned cranes in China.
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国内统一连续出版物号:51-1193/Q |国际标准出版物号:1000-7083
主管单位:四川省科学技术协会  主办单位:四川省动物学会/成都大熊猫繁育研究基金会/四川省野生动植物保护协会/四川大学
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