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小叶榕隐头果内加利里金小蜂的发生规律
The Occurrence Regularity of Parasite Odontofroggatia galili on Ficus microcarpa
孔月1,2,巴义梅1, 3,徐华丽4,彭艳琼1*,杨大荣1
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作者单位:(1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 昆明650223;2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049;3. 云南农业大学,昆明650201;4. 云南省南涧县农业技术推广中心,云南南涧675700)
中文关键字:小叶榕;非传粉小蜂;加利里金小蜂;发生规律
英文关键字:fig; non-pollinating fig wasps; Odontofroggatia galili; occurrence regulariry
中文摘要:小叶榕Ficus microcarpa是一种广泛分布于亚洲热带和亚热带地区的雌雄同株榕树,在它的隐头果中,除了专一性传粉的榕小蜂外,还寄生着多种非传粉小蜂,这些非传粉小蜂在榕果发育的不同时期来到果外产卵,对榕树和传粉榕小蜂繁衍后代产生不同的影响。加利里金小蜂Odontofroggatia galili是寄生于小叶榕雌花子房里的主要非传粉小蜂。本文在2012~2013年对该种小蜂的发生规律进行了研究,结果表明:该种小蜂雌雄蜂有翅,雄蜂二型,个体大小有显著差异。加利里金小蜂在榕果的雌花前期产卵,能独立造瘿;在西双版纳地区,干热季和雨季从卵发育到成虫羽化需31~38 d,雾凉季则长达58~72 d。成虫在榕果雄花期羽化出蜂,大多数雄蜂在苞片口等待羽化出果的雌蜂交配,雌雄蜂通常仅交配一次;为争夺交配机会,雄蜂间存在激烈打斗,且个体大者获交配机会多。成虫期雌蜂寿命2 d,雄蜂寿命仅1 d。小叶榕40%的树上隐头果内有加利里金小蜂寄生,但不同地区寄生率和单果内加利里金小蜂雌雄蜂数量树间均存在显著差异。在原生地西双版纳地区加利里金小蜂种群小,传粉榕小蜂种群占主导地位;而在引入地昆明地区,加利里金小蜂发生频率高,种群显著较大;随着纬度北移和海拔升高,在榕果内罕见有传粉榕小蜂传粉和繁殖,而加利里金小蜂种群则不断升高。说明小叶榕在海拔较高和纬度偏北地区栽种,不适宜传粉榕小蜂繁殖,而非传粉的加利里金小蜂则较为适应,获得成功繁殖及种群扩张。
英文摘要:Ficus microcarpa is a monecious species which is widely distributed in Asian tropical and subtropical regions. Except for the species of specific pollinating fig wasps, the figs are also exploited by multiple non-pollinating fig wasps. These non-pollinating fig wasps visit figs to lay eggs in different fig developmental phases, and have different effects on the seed and pollinator production. Odontofroggatia galili is a main non-pollinating fig wasp in the figs of F. microcarpa. The occurrence regularity of O. galili were studied from 2012 to 2013. The results showed that both female and male O. galili had wings, and the males were pleomorphic in body size. O. galili laid eggs on the figs in pre-female phase, and was able to make galls independently. At Xishuangbanna region, the period of development from eggs to adults was 31~38 days in warm-dry season and rainy season, and 58~72 days in cold-dry season. The adults emerged in male phase of figs. Males firstly left fig cavity and waited for the females around the ostiole. Once the female came out, males caught the female for copulation. In general, female and male wasps only mated one time. There was strong fighting among males in order to compete mating chance, and large males were easy to win. The longevity of female adults was two days, and the males only survived one day. On F. microcarpa, 40% of the trees were exploited by O. galili, and the fig occupancy and the number of O. galili produced by a single fig showed significant differences among trees. In the original Xishuangbanna region, the pollinating fig wasp was main species, whereas O. galili showed a low occurrence frequency and the population size was small. However, O. galili had a high occurrence frequency and a significant larger population in the introduced Kunming city. The pollinating fig wasps were rarely reproduced when F. microcarpa was introduced to plant in high latitude and high altitude region, but the reproduction of O. galili was more successful. These results suggest that, O. galili, rather than the pollinating fig wasp, has adapted reproduction in high latitude and high altitude region.

 

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