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基于红外相机技术监测秦岭山地引水工程对大中型兽类种群影响的初报
Preliminary Report on Impacted Mammals with Camera Traps in Water Diversion Project Construction Area, Mt. Qinling
何刚,郭松涛,金学林,张河,石智慧,刘羿辰,李东群,贾康胜,郑鹏斌,Pan Ruliang,李保国
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作者单位:1. 西北大学生命科学学院,西安710069;2. 西北大学陕西省秦岭珍稀濒危动物保育重点实验室,西安710069;3.陕西省动物研究所,西安710032;4. 陕西省珍稀野生动物抢救饲养研究中心,西安710402;5.陕西周至老县城国家级自然保护区,西安710400;6. The University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6907, Australia
中文关键字:水利工程; 秦岭; 兽类; 红外相机; 种群变化
英文关键字:Water diversion project; Qinling Mountains; Mammals; Infrared Camera; Variation of Animal Populations
中文摘要:2015年1月—2016年12月,采用红外相机技术在陕西省引汉济渭工程作业区设立4处监测点,对兽类保护动物种群变化进行了监测研究。结果显示,共发现大中型陆栖兽类动物3目9科9种,其中,川金丝猴Rhinopithecus roxellana、秦岭羚牛Budorcas bedfordi和林麝Moschus berezovskii属于国家I级重点保护动物,野猪Sus scrofa和黄鼬Mustela sibirica在监测中的遇见频次最多。随着工程的推进,与2015年相比,2016年监测发现的物种数量和遇见频次均呈现减少的趋势。这说明该工程的人为干扰、噪音、景观的改变对作业区内栖息的野生动物具有不利的影响,已经出现动物活动减少、发生迁移的现象,这有可能会进一步影响秦岭动物群落结构和种群空间分布。建议加强动物种群变化监测,减少人为干扰,严控动物栖息地破坏,做好景观和植被恢复工程。
英文摘要:With infrared cameras located at 4 monitoring stations, some mammals with larger and medium body sizes were observed and studied in a special area of Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, where a Han-Wei water diversion project is under construction. Data collection of the observed records was commenced from January 2015 to December 2016. The results indicate that 9 species belonging in 9 families of 3 Orders were recorded and accounted, including golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), golden takin (Budorcas bedfordi) and forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), which are endangered animals listed as level I on the Red List of China’s animals. Other animals frequently recorded are wild boars (Sus scrofa) and Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica). A comparison between the two years shows that a remarkable differentiation in animal appearing frequency has been found; lesser frequency in 2016 than 2015. This means that the infrastructure of the water project has already generated some negative impacts on animal activities and their normal behaviours due to the man-made disturbances – noises and landscape change – on the wildlife in the area. The most severe is, however, from the creation of the barriers for animal migration and normal movements. Thus, the results reported in this study arouse a deep concern that the further impacts on the wildlife could be more prominent following a further development and extension of the project. Thus, it is urgent to have the wild animals in the region extensively monitored; and set up a liaison among the government, conservation organization, scientists and water project administration in order to form a tangible strategy and management that aims to: 1) reduce the magnitude of natural environmental fragmentation; 2) recover the sites adopted by the animals; and 3) diminish the interruption and disturbance to the animals caused by the project and humans.
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